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Num3r05 in lighting

Mihai R. Pecingina, ing., de Kelvin Emtech

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SEASON 1

 125 – 186 000 – 300 000 – 8 – 380 – 780 – 5 000 – 4 000 – 3 500 – 2 500 – 963, 42 – 926, 32 – 934, 56 – 1058, 83 – 52 – 800 – 90 – 60 – 5 – 110,8 – 30 –380 000

Decryption: Light and natural lighting

History

The first usage of natural light happened 125 years ago B.C. by the emperor Hadrian who left an “oculus”, a circular hole, on the Pantheon`s dome roof.

Others

186 000 mi/s or 300 000 km/s is the speed that light travels in a straight line. Light can therefore travel around the world 7, 5 times in 1 second.

8 minutes is the time spent by light to cover the distance between the sun and the earth.

380 nm to 780 nm are the wave lengths of visible light. 5000 Kelvin degrees is the temperature of the midday sun`s light colour. In the morning or at night it reaches 4000 Kelvin degrees. The value of the coloured temperature for a fluorescent lamp is normally 3500 Kelvin degrees; for an incandescent lamp, approximately 2500 kelvin degrees; and for a metallic halogen lamp, 4000 Kelvin degrees.

 On August 2nd, 2010 the solar flux was 963,42 W/m2 in Montréal8, 926,32 W/m2 in Gaspé8, 934,56 W/m2 In Val d’Or8 and 1058,83 W/m2 In Los Angeles8.

52, is the number of houses in the Drake Landing (Okotoks, Alberta) solar energy community, 15 minutes south of Calgary9. This corresponds to :

  • 800 flat single glass solar panels (1,5 MW of thermal power in a typical summer day),
  • 90 % of heating needs and 60 % of hot water needs are met thanks to the solar panel supply,
  • A reduction of 5 tons of GES emissions per house,
  • 110,8 GJ of energy savings per house compared to a conventional Canadian house (30 % more efficient),
  • 380 000 $, the average price of one of these houses.

SEASON 2

1875 – 1876 – 1878  – 1879 – 1888 – 2012 – 11 – 683 – 555 – 250 – 0,1 – 0,3 –  1,4 – 4 – 14,7

Decryption: Lighting, incandescence and energy efficiency

History

In 1875, in Canada, M. Henry Woodward filed a patent for the first light bulb filament and carbon electrode.

In 1876, in Russia, Pavel Yablochkov succeeded in producing the first arc lamp, which was then used for public lighting in Paris.

In 1878, electric lighting is introduced to the world at the Paris Exposition.

From 1878-1879, impressed by the demonstration of electric lighting introduced at the Paris Exhibition, Montreal's J. A. I. Craig returned to Montreal with the Jesuits to install the first electric light in the city (based on the arc lamp invented by Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov) in front of the College of Jesuits, on Bleury Street.

In 1878, Sir Joseph Wilson Swan pateneted his arc lamp in Engalnd.

In 1879, M Thomas Alva Edison filed a patent for his arc lamp and carbon electrodes in the United States.

In 1888 the first electrical lighting came to Sherbrooke.

In 2012, The Energy Efficiency Regulations of Canada will mark out the design, manufacture and marketing of non-efficient lamps and several types of light bulbs will disappear as of this year.

Others

11 percent of the energy budget is allocated to lighting in an average household10.

683 lm/W, is the theoretical limit of efficiency of a light source that completely transforms any electric energy into visible light (this value is derived directly from the definition of the candela and the lumen extension). For this, there must be a spectrum of monochromatic wavelength 555 nm (maximum sensitivity of the eye).

250 lm/W is the theoretical luminous efficiency of white LED; 0.1 lm / W the light output of a candle1; 0.3 lm / W, that of an oil lamp11 ; 1.4 lm / W, that of incandescent lighting 187911 ; 4 lm / W, that of a 60W incandescent bulb (carbon filament) of 190511 ; and 14.7 lm / W, the luminous efficiency of the 60 W (tungsten) incandescent bulb of 196811.

SEASON 3

1802 – 1841 – 1867 – 1901 – 1926 – 1973 – 2,5 – 82 – 71 – 80 – 96 – 92 – 50 000 – 52 000

Encryption: tubes and compact fluorescent lamps

History

In 1802, the first demonstration took place with the electric arc in air.

In 1841, is the first time light, produced from an electric arc, was used for lighting as an experiment in Paris.

In 1867, the ancestor of the fluorescent tubes saw the light of day... in France, when Becquerel produced a discharge in a tube on which he had placed a luminescent material.

In 1901, Peter Cooper Hewitt demonstrated the mercury vapour lamp, the ancestor of today's fluorescent tube.

In 1926, in Germany, Edmund Germer filed a patent for the fluorescent lamp.

In 1973, the modern compact fluorescent lamp was invented by Edward E. Hammer, Engineer "General Electric", in response to the oil crisis.

Others

2.5 is the luminous flux of a fluorescent tube T8 36W and 2.5 times larger than the flux of the LED replacement tubes tested by the U.S. Department of Energy.

82 is the colour rendering index (CRI) for the tube and 71, is for the LEDs. The 4 inches long LED replacement tubes are not recognized in the U.S. by the Energy Star program.

80 lm / W is the light output of a 40W fluorescent (cool white) tube 196811 1; 96 lm / W is for the 199312  36W (cool white, IRC 85) fluorescent tube; and 92 lm / W, is for the 201013 32 W fluorescent tube (4100 K, CRI 85).

50 000 h is the lifetime of a 2010 "instant start" 32W (4100 K, CRI 85) fluorescent tube that operates for 12h after ignition13 and 52 000 h is the lifetime of a 2010 32W (4100 K, CRI 85) “programmed rapid start" fluorescent tube that operates for about 3 h after ignition13.

SEASON 4

1962 – 1970 – 1996 – 2000 – 40 – 186 – 25 – 1,7 – 3,4 – 12,9 – 21,5 – 7,8 – 8,1 – 134 – 13 – 88 – 25 – 103

Encryption: LED, OLED1, 5 ,6, 7

History

In 1962, another american, Nick Holonyak Jr., created the first diode that emits light in the visible spectrum.

In 1970, yellow and green LED make their appearance.

In 1996, it’s the blue (Nakamura de « Nichia ») LED’s turn to make their appearance.

In 2000, we witness the white LED appearance.

Others

40 % energy consumption6 has been achieved using a LED solution against a possible solution to T5 fluorescent tubes to illuminate the 9000 ft2of office space in Tower 42 (Tower 42) in London, regarded as the first office tower completely converted to LEDs.

186 lm/W, is the efficiency achieved by the LED light created in laboratory6.

25 lm / W, is the light efficiency achieved by the OLED (organic LEDs) Osram - Module 80 mm diameter and 2.1 mm thickness6.

1,7 to 3,4 is the return on investment in years to replace incandescent sources (with or without halogen) by retrofitted with LED6.

12.9 is the return on investment in years for the replacement compact fluorescent light sources with LEDs for lighting residential or offices, where more than 500 lm are required in a high-intensity lighting directionnelle6.

21.5 is the return on investment in years for the replacement of fluorescent tubes by LED retrofit multidirectional office space cool6 lighting.

7.8 to 8.1 years is the return on investment for the replacement of metal6 halide sources.

134
lm / W (4 746-7 040K, CRI 70-80),  are the steps taken by the U.S. Department of Energy7 and industry representatives in 2010. In 2009, the luminous efficiency of these LEDs
were 113 lm / W, their prices should also decline (25) $13 / klm.

88
lm / W (77) (2 580-3 710k and IRC 80-90), these are the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy7 for warm light. The price must be reduced by 36-25 $ / klm.

103
is the number of Toshiba products that have disappeared since 2009 when, after 120 years, this company completely stopped producing incandescent7.
 

SEASON 5

1910 – 1964 – 25 – 4 – 50 – 10 – 35 – 55 – 30 – 40 – 50 – 100

Decryption: Lighting control
 

History

In 1910, sprang the first modular sockets for stage lighting. They were found in the Smithsonian3  museum's collection.

By 1964, the first transistor dimmers were manufactured by Joel Spira - President and Founder of “Lutron” 3.

Others

By reducing 25% the flux emitted by a halogen, the lifetime of the latter increases by 4 times, and if the percentage is 50%, the lifetime increases 10 times.

It achieves 35 to 55% savings on energy bills for the lighting of commercial buildings using "intelligent" controls.

It achieves 30 to 40% savings on material costs and installation of a wireless lighting control system versus a conventional control.

50 mWs are necessary for a wireless light switch (without batteries) to send a radio command (100 times less than a wireless switch that requires batteries).

FINAL SEASON

1906 – 1947 – 2010 – 10 – 90,1 – 10 – 21 – 39 – 17,5 – 7 – 9

Encryption: Organizations and Standards

History

In 1906, the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) was founded.

In 1947, Robert McKinley launched the first IES Handbook in the United States.

Towards the end of 2010, the 10th edition of the IESNA Lighting Handbook will see the light of day. The editors are David DiLaura, Kevin Houser, Richard Mistrick and Gary Steffy.

Also in 2010, a new version of the ANSI / ASHRAE / IESNA 90.1 is to be issued.

According to the June 2010 edition of the LD + A3 magazine, the ANSI / ASHRAE / IESNA 90.1-2010 standard will require a reduction of 10% of the energy density of lighting in offices (1 W/pi2 0 9 W/pi2). This same standard will require a reduction of 21% of the energy density of the lighting in arenas (1.1 W/pi2 W/pi2 0.78) and a reduction of 39% of the energy density lighting in the dorms (1 W/pi2 W/pi2 0.61) from 17.5% in warehouses, etc.

From November 7th to 9th 2010, Toronto, (Fairmont Royal York Hotel) will host the annual conference of HUI3.

R3f3r3nc35 (bibliography)

1.    IES Course, Fundamentals of lighting, FOL-IM-09 (2009)

2.    The IESNA lighting handbook, 9e édition, 2000

3.    LD+A, Juin 2010

4.    http://www.sabmagazine.com/blog/2010/06/15/lighting-controls/

5.    LEDs Magazine, janvier/février 2010

6.    LEDs magazine, avril 2010

7.    LEDs Magazine, mai/juin 2010

8.    http://ptaff.ca/soleil/?l1pays=Canada&l1etat=Qu%C3%A9bec&l1ville=Montr%C3%A9al&l2pays=&l2etat=&l1cityname=Montr%C3%A9al%2C+Qu%C3%A9bec%2C+Canada&l1ltd=45&l1ltm=30&l1lts=0&l1ltx=N&l1lgd=73&l1lgm=34&l1lgs=47&l1lgx=W&l1tz=-5.0&l1dst=US&l2cityname=&l2ltd=&l2ltm=&l2lts=&l2ltx=N&l2lgd=&l2lgm=&l2lgs=&l2lgx=E&l2tz=0&l2dst=&year=2010&month=08&day=03&lang=fr_CA&go=Voir+le+graphe%21

9.    http://canmetenergy-canmetenergie.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca/fra/batiments_communautes/communautes/publications/drake_landing.html

10.http://www.napoleon.cc/tips/

11.Westinghouse Lighting handbook, 1973

12.Philips Lighting Manual, fifth edition, 1993

13.Sylvania – OCTRON 800 XP XL ECOLOGIC 3, 2010

Special thanks

As usual, special thanks go out to Caroline Lebec for her corrections and support.